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5. Summaries, April 9 - April 22 2012


Week 8 - 9
Each class summarizes the answers received from the   Learning Circle partners. The summaries are posted in the Wiki.




Summary mdg1, National College “B.P.Hasdeu”, Romania





Summary mdg2, Aga Khan Academy Mombasa, Kenya





Summary mdg3, Chavakali High School, Kenya


We are glad and we would like to thank you for your responses and also like to appreciate you for your efforts to answer our questions and the good research done. The reason as to why we asked this question is because in our constitution (Kenyan constitution), the rights of the girl child seem to overshadow the boy, who is already being forgotten. According to our concept the boy child is an endangered species with too much advocacy of rights to the girl child.


Gender equality, from our domain, is a situation where men and women are recognized as equivalent.  They are granted equal rights and equal responsibilities, equal access to resources and their uses. We therefore expected that men and women should have equal rights and responsibilities.


We leant that despite the few levels of gender equality in some countries in the circle, some countries still experience a high level of gender equality. We have learnt that the boy child has had a share and been placed in the limelight. Empowering a girl is only helping her to arrive where a boy child, so that together they can appreciate each other and great things. We also learnt that in some countries the men have to work harder and take the low paid jobs since the women have higher positions than men as they think women are qualified. Also in other countries boys and girls are treated equally.  In others, (mdg 6), say that this has become an international crisis and should be considered since discrimination still arises. We are also told that boys are not losing respect given to them (mdg 9)


We also learnt that the government has set some policies for the girl child e.g

     1. Policies of farewell and representation in 6the parliament

     2. Low of inheritance for the women which was rarely seen at the beginning. 

     3. Maendeleo ya wanawake : a Swahili word which is a movement for empowering women

     4. Because I am a girl ; a show for raising funds for the girls

     5. Jobs are provided for women and wages kept at a balance level between the two


We also learnt that there are challenges:

     1. Enmity and conflicts -  

               feeling that the girl child is favored hence working against each other and not with each other

     2. Lack of respect for one another 

     3. One gender is not fully appreciated( boy child) 

     4. Men not taken in to account 


We also leant that the boys and girls should work together to achieve more.

What we expected to learn was that how different genders are allocated rights in the circle and if there is any gender that is favored or looked down upon. 

We learnt that the two genders should work hand in hand in order to achieve their goals.


There were differences in that in some countries there is more of gender inequality (either the boy child or the girl child is favored more). While in others it is less.


The differences exist due to constitutional rights of the countries involved.

This will indeed lead to a challenge of which is that there will be no uniformity in achievement of the goal.



Summary mdg4, Limbazi Secondary School No3, Latvia


          We chose the question about inequality between countries because we considered this problem to be the main cause of other global issues in the world - there would be no famine, wars etc. if all countries were equally developed and could support each other. We think that this problem is serious and needs to be solved.

          Before asking you this question we knew quite little about this problem. We knew that there were still countries where people lived like we lived hundreds of years ago and we also knew that there were countries in which technologies had developed up to an amazingly high level. We could imagine that there was a major gap between these two groups of countries.

          So the question stands - how you can change a way one particular human thinks and bring him on the road of working for the benefit of the country. What can we do to help the countries where there is famine, high children mortality and where their residents live in miserable conditions if compared to the rest of the world?

          After we read your answers we had a whole different look at this issue. We understood that this gap between developing and developed countries was because of many reasons, mostly political and economical.

          The main reason could be the lack of natural resources which leads to weak economic situation, poverty and famine. Another important reason is the way the government of these countries work. Sometimes the government do not think about the ways to develop the country as a whole. They do not try to cooperate with other countries that could help the poor residents with the resources they need.The government mainly think about their pockets and how to get more money and little about the residents of the country. What is more, the actions of governments lead to a war or constant riots.

            To help developing countries develop to the level of the developed countries, the developed countries should try to lend some of their resources; also all of residents should be interested in developing their country. If we want to achieve these goals of millennium, all of us should dedicate a bit of our time to help each other, because a country cannot accomplish them on its own. It needs the help of everyone. Only together we can reach all of the millennium goals.

            In conclusion, we must admit that it would be a very big step forward to make an international law to prevent unacceptable things which governments of some countries do to its residents, prevent inhumane actions against people, do more charity work for developing countries.The developed countries have to help poorer countries financially and military. The wars must be stopped; peace and harmony have to be established among all the countries. We have to create trust between all the countries so we could join in one big union in establishing global partnership.




Summary mdg5, Redstone P.S., Canada (teacher Linda Binicki),

Response 1: 

 Charlotte Brontë once said, “Women are supposed to be very calm generally: but women feel just as men feel; they need exercise for their faculties, and a field for their efforts, as much as their brothers do; they suffer from too rigid a restraint, to absolute a stagnation, precisely as men would suffer.” 


Everybody feels the need to have power in the workplace and to be included. So why are women considered less valuable than men in the labour market.  The result is a lack of job opportunities and less pay for women doing the same work as men?

Women employment rates have slowly been rising to equal the income for men. Though The
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development found out that women still have a 20% less chance to have a job than men. Between 1976 and 2011, the employment rate for women in Canada has risen from 41.9% to 57.9%. On the contrary, the employment rate for men has decreased from 72.7% to 65.9%. This shows that though women employment rates have increased in the past 30 years, women are still offered less job opportunities than men are. Consequently, because there are fewer women in the labour market, this results in their having a lower income.


Response 2: 

“When women thrive, all of society benefits, and succeeding generations are given a better start in life.”-Kofi Annan.


     Of the 130 million 6-11 year-old children not in school, 60 percent are girls. Imagine that you lived in a world where your brother went to school, but you didn’t, simply because you are a girl. Education is the foundation of success.  The higher the level of education in a country, the less the inequality between the genders.

     A huge reason why many girls do not go to school is because of tight finances in the family. For example, if a family only had enough money to send one child to school, they will inevitably choose the boy over the girl. In Northern Africa, only 82 girls go to school for every 100 boys. In places like Southern Asia, the Arab area, and parts of Africa, only 75 girls go to school for every 100 boys. This affects the future choices and oppurtunities of the children. If a child did receive all the education they needed, it might end generational cycles of poverty, teach them on how to protect themselves from sexually transmitted diseases, and how to take an active role in social, economic and political decision-making.

     Many studies have shown that female education is equally, if not more, important as male education. It has been shown to reduce fertility levels, reduce child mortality levels, and promote the education of the next generation. These factors all contribute to positive economic growth. In addition, non-educated persons have very little chance of getting a stable, well-paying job. Thus continuing the cycle of poverty and possibly creating poverty paths for future generations.


Summary mdg6, Redstone P.S., Canada (teacher Stephanie Ratti)

Response 1: 

Imagine being a pregnant woman in a state of extreme poverty. As a mother, you want your child to grow up healthy, but how? There is not enough health care available to you in your country, and you have no idea how to take care of the growing baby in your stomach; you’ve never been informed on how to do so. Your stomach growls and you feel sick again. Disease and malnutrition have given you so much trouble over the years, and you fear for your baby’s life. What if you can’t take care of it? What if it dies? Many women in the world are burdened with poverty and disease, which decreases their maternal health and increases the rate of infant mortality at the same time. Unfortunately, these women do not have access to the two most important things that they need for their baby’s survival; education and resources. I know what you’re thinking; “This is another report about third world poverty, isn’t it?” This is not true. Poverty and disease are the two main factors that increase infant mortality and decrease maternal health in all countries.  First world, Second world, Third world, you name it, these factors can be present everywhere.     




There is a direct correlation between a mother’s health and a child’s health. The healthier the mother is, the healthier the child will be. Unfortunately, this correlation can also be the other way around. One of the major factors that affect a mother and her child’s health is malnutrition. Malnutrition happens when a child does not have enough food with the protein, vitamins, minerals and calories that they need in order to grow and develop. This is the cause of 1/3 of child deaths, killing one child every 5 seconds. This means that 1600 children die every day because their families do not have access to the food that they all need. Can you imagine the pain and sorrow that their families must be feeling? Not being able to afford these resources also can be a huge cause of infant mortality. Think about it; there are currently 925 million people in the world suffering from malnutrition, and many of them are women.  These women have a decreased chance of having successful births, since their children are likely to die if they do not get the nutrients they need. Unfortunately, this can happen anywhere, and anyone living in poverty could be affected. For example, almost 900,000 people living in Canada rely on food banks. This proves that these 900,000 people may be living in poverty, despite Canada’s good living conditions. In Kenya, 50,000 to 65,000 children need treatment because of malnutrition. This proves that poverty happens everywhere, from first world countries to third world countries, and that any woman living in poverty can be affected by it, decreasing their maternal health and increasing infant mortality.


Technology and education play a huge role in the increase of maternal health and the decrease of infant mortality.  This is because the better the information that is provided to a pregnant woman, the better education this woman will get. The better this education the woman receives is, the better her maternal health will be. Technology is also extremely important to a pregnant woman’s health, because it allows doctors to see if the baby is healthy and unhealthy before it is born. The access of resources is also significant to maternal health, because it allows these same doctors to give a woman the supplies she needs if the baby is unhealthy. Without these important things, a woman’s baby is less likely to survive, since she won’t know how to take care of it properly. On top of this, this woman will not have good healthcare or resources to turn to. As a result, the rate of infant mortality will increase, and many women’s maternal health will decrease anywhere where people are living in a state of poverty around the globe. For example, Kenya, a 3rd world country, has low maternal health. Because of this fact, 14,000 women die each year, and 294,000-441,000 women have to suffer from disabilities. To add to this, there is only one doctor for every thousand sick people. However, just because Kenya is a third world country, does not mean that they are the only ones who suffer. Latvia, a 2nd world country, has one of the highest infant mortality rates in Europe. 30% of the women there have not given successful births. This tells me that in both countries, not all pregnant women are able to have access to the efficient technology, resources, or education that they need to maintain their maternal health. However, these are not the only countries where some women are not able to have access to the resources that they need. There are many more countries around the world that unfortunately do not have all the resources, technology, and education that pregnant women need for their baby’s survival. The main reason for this is poverty, which is one of the main factors that decreases maternal health and that increases infant mortality all over the world.

Although I have mostly talked about the effects poverty has on maternal health, disease can also greatly effect maternal health and increase infant mortality in all countries. AIDS, Malaria, different types of infections, Hepatitis A, Anemia, Measles, and Diarrhea are all examples of the diseases that increase infant mortality the most in every country. Two of the most fatal diseases to both a mother and a baby listed here are AIDS and Malaria. AIDS is an awful disease that spreads using the contact of bodily fluids, breaking down someone’s immune system and making them vulnerable to often fatal infections that they wouldn’t normally get. This awful disease is more likely to kill children than adults, since they already have a lower immune system than adults as it is. Children can be affected by this disease before birth, after birth, or through breast feeding. This greatly increases the infant mortality rate in every country, especially because of the fact that it can be so easily passed on from mother to child. Malaria, one of the other most fatal diseases that can happen to anyone, anywhere, occurs when blood parasites carried by a mosquito enter someone’s body, multiplying in their blood stream. This can cause chills, fever, and sometimes death.  This disease can greatly affect maternal health and can increase the rate of infant mortality, because although this disease cannot be passed on from mother to child, the mother, when infected, can still affect the baby since its health depends on its mother’s. Can you imagine what it would be like to have these diseases, and to worry every day about how it might affect your child? I know that when most of you read this, you are going to be thinking to yourself that this only happens in third world countries, which is false. Although these diseases are more known to be in third world countries, anyone living in a state of poverty in any country can be affected.  For example, in Kenya, 1.5 million people are living with HIV (which leads to AIDS), while in Canada, 2,417 people were diagnosed with AIDS in 2009. This clearly shows that regardless of where a pregnant woman lives, she can still be affected by diseases, decreasing her maternal health.

In all countries, regardless of whether they’re first world, second world, or third world, poverty and disease are the main factors which increase infant mortality and decrease maternal health. Malnutrition and the lack of technology, resources, and education can also affect pregnant women and their children around the world. Can you imagine that kind of worry and stress that these women living in poverty or with disease have to deal with each day?



No Copyright intended. All rights for the pictures go to their owners shown below:










Response 2:


Barrier: “An obstacle that prevents one from reaching a goal or that keeps people apart from something.”


Picture you and your family, desperately trying to hurdle over the insurmountable barrier; the poverty barrier. You gaze at your disease-stricken community where families are struggling to provide for their children. Those very same children have little hope for a long life and good health.  As tormenting as this seems, the ugly truth is that mothers living in poverty also expose their children to an increased infant mortality rate.


First off, the healthcare being provided to needy families does not meet the WHO expectations. In third-world countries, rural hospitals are scattered throughout villages that open their doors to ailing families. These hospitals are flooded with patients seeking help with lethal diseases like Malaria and HIV. In some third-world countries, almost half of expectant mothers are found to be HIV infected. This leads to severe complications at birth and abnormalities associated with the child such as birth defects and diseases. This is also one of the main explanations for the fact that in third-world countries, 1 in every 6 children dies before the age of 5.


Secondly, there is a sparse amount of food and nutrition available to third-world countries and it is extremely problematic. Some mothers would wake up at the crack of dawn and take a lengthy mile-long hike just for fresh water for her family. Typically, in less-developed countries you would consume some local fruits and bread. You would be lucky if you ate some kind of meat which is a huge problem because sources say that protein-calorie malnutrition is an underlying cause of death in mothers and children. In countries with access to high-fatty foods, expectant women are advised to stay clear or else the fetus could overgrow in womb. As a result, the woman is expected to undergo a caesarian delivery which can cause death of the fetus.


Finally, in third-world countries, a  mother’s past affect the health of the child. In many countries, women endure heavy daily labour in an effort to support her family. As a result, children could be found to have some malformations. In third-world countries, there is often easy access to drugs which is extremely problematic. If an expectant mother has frequently taken drugs in the past, it will decrease the life-span of the child. One of the main issues in third-world countries is the lack of education to make simple lifestyle changes. Things like proper breastfeeding practices and oral rehydration therapy can be given.


Therefore, many things affect infant mortality. The overall combination of the lack of sufficient hospitals, improper nutritional diets and the mothers cruel past contributes to the child's health and life expectancy. Currently, reduction of child mortality is 4th of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals but there is still much to be done and it currently is not meeting expectations. If you live below that essential poverty barrier, the future does not look good for you but there still is hope. Things are improving, one hospital at a time.      


Summary mdg7,  Colegiul Economic Buzau, Romania




In this GTP Circle learnt  a lot of things.

       Famine is a global problem wich affects even the big countries with big resources. Canada is one of the most powerfull countries wich has a strong agricultural system an exports a lot all over the world. As we saw in the presentation, even if Canada has a lot of resources and exports more and more, it still has a little problem with famine. This its because the prices rise and the job opportunities are getting unavaivble. But a BIG IDEA came out. The food banks help people who can’t afford to buy enough food when needed.

Canada supports other countries as well in the fight against famine. There is still much to be done, and by the help of donations, famine will be silenced in other countries to.

      We found out that in Latvia the main reasons of famine don’t exist, so famine problems don’t exist. Also, measures were taken at the right time. The charity boxes,advertising campaigns for charity, advertisements on websites and food boxes, they all help the poor people, but of course this wouldn’t be possible without the help of your generous citizens. The good climate it’s very important, but there can be tough years because of a very cold winter. Latvia also involved in actions against famine and helped many people.

     The reasons  who cause famine are more than what we know. The education and responsibility of the gouvern is not very good. They don’t undersand that the future of the country “lies in their hands”. It’s sad what is happening in Kenya and it’s more tragial becauseyoung children suffering every day.

The gouverment now  try to stop or to reduce effect of famine encouraging farmers to plant vegetables  who don’t need to much water. Because it’s a huge tragedy what’s happen there and in what condition people live  famine is declared  a national disaster. Big company around the world sponsored and help the country sending food,water and medicaments.

       The geographic position where Kenya is located make the country to suffer from malnutrition and starving because water is very rare and it’s never rain. The Kenya Red Cross have some solution and the most important are: send water, children going to school and to creat system of irrigation



Hugs from Romania


Summary mdg8, National College “B.P.Hasdeu”, Romania (teachers Luminita Popescu , Dana Trocaru)





Summary mdg9,  BRUCE TRAIL PUBLIC SCHOOL, Canada




First of all, we want to thank everyone for their responses to their question.  We were very thrilled to read all of your responses.  We were most interested in Kenya’s response, as we could all agree that we had little to no understanding of this country.  Therefore, we have focused on Kenya and all the information they had to offer us in the writing of this summary.


Kenya is the third most developed country in all of Africa.  This is primarily due to their advanced industry as well as their exports in the automotive industry and finally their technological pursuits.  Kenya has many connections to surrounding African countries and is relied upon by many of these countries.  Globally, Kenya exports agricultural goods as well as raw materials such as iron ore.  They import a wide variety of items around the world. Some of these items include plastics and crude oil.



People immigrate to Kenya for a wide variety of reasons.  These include but are not limited to:

            -businesss and investment opportunities

            -the high standard of education in Kenya

            -the great value of currency

            -political stability

            -tourism industry.

In general, people emigrate from Kenya due to cultural and societal factors as well as the climate may not be suitable for most.




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